Bindunuwewa massacre

4 09 2009

The Bindunuwewa Massacre or Bindunuwewa Prison Massacre took place on October 24, 2000 at a detention center of Bindunuwewa, Sri Lanka, resulting in the deaths of 26 minority Tamil political prisoners by a mob of majority Sinhalese.[1][2]

Camp

The low-security detention center was established to house rebel LTTE sympathizers and activists who were of a relatively young age. Of the 26 killed, 2 were under the age of 19 and the rest were between 19 and 30.[3]

The massacre

On October 24, 2000, a mob of a few hundred Sinhalese villagers armed with knives, rods and torches stormed the detention center while the inmates were sleeping. The Sri Lankan Army detachment that was posted there had been withdrawn the previous day, for unknown reasons.[4]

Once the massacre started, the posted police personnel refused to intervene to stop it.[5]

Government response

Initially, the government responded by saying that the detainees had rioted and that the massacre was an outcome of an attempt to control the rioting. Then it was claimed that the police were unable to protect the detainees in the face of superior mob force. Eventually, the government charged a few police officers with a crime. Most were initially convicted of murder, only to be released by the Sri Lankan Supreme Court in 2006.[citation needed]

Theories

A number of theories have been postulated to explain the massacre:

  • It was organized by local Sinhala nationalist political activists with the convenience of Sri Lankan Army and police personnel.
  • It was a reaction by the local villagers who resented the detention center in their neighborhood.
  • It was organized by the military establishment to thwart an attempt by the detainees to go on hunger strike in the subsequent days to protest their detention.
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Welikada prison massacre

4 09 2009

The Welikada Prison Massacre took place during the 1983 Black July pogrom against Sri Lankan Tamil minority in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Fifty-three prisoners were killed inside a high-security prison.[citation needed] No one has been convicted of crimes relating to these incidents.[1]

Crime scene

The prison is shaped as a Cross-with four divisions- A, B, C and D. A3 B3 C3 and D3 were all on ground floor. B3, C3 and D3 all housed Tamil detainees and A3 had dangerous criminals who were almost all Sinhalese.

Incident

The incident occurred in two different series of actions: the first on 25 July, 1983 when 35 Tamil prisoners were attacked and killed by Sinhalese inmates. The second massacre was two days later when Sinhalese inmates killed another 18 Tamil detainees and 3 prison deputies.





The Gal Oya massacre

4 09 2009

The Gal Oya riots or Gal Oya massacre were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Sri Lankan Tamils in post independent Sri Lanka, an island nation in South Asia.[3] The riots took place from June 11, 1956 and occurred over the next five days. Local majority Sinhalese colonists and employees of the Gal Oya settlement board commandeered government vehicles, dynamite and weapons and massacred minority Tamils by the hundreds. It is estimated that over 150 people lost their lives due in the violence. Although initially inactive, the Police and the Army were eventually able to re-take control of the situation and brought the riots under control.

Background information

During the British colonial period, when Sri Lanka was known as Ceylon, most civil service jobs were (roughly 60%) held by minority Sri Lankan Tamils who comprised approximately 15% of the population. This was enabled due to the availability of western style education provided by American missionaries and others in the Tamil dominant Jaffna peninsula. The preponderance of Tamils over their natural share of the population was used by populist Sinhalese politicians to come to political power by promising to elevate the Sinhalese people. The pro-Sinhalese nationalist Sri Lanka Freedom Party came to power in 1956 promising to make Sinhala, the language of the majority Sinhalese people the sole official language. [5] The so called Sinhala only policy was opposed by the Sri Lankan Tamil, Federal party which conducted a non-violent sit in protest on June 5, 1956 in front of the parliament in Colombo , the capital city. About 200 Tamil leaders and politicians took part in this protest. But the protestors were attacked by a Sinhalese mob that was led a junior government minister. [6] The same mob after listening to a speech by populist Sinhalese politicians urging them to boycott Tamil business went on a looting spree in the city. [6] Over 150 Tamil owned shops were looted and many people were hospitalized for their injuries. But these disturbances were quickly brought under control by the police.[7]

Gal Oya settlement scheme

Gal Oya settlement scheme was begun in 1949 to settle landless peasants in formerly jungle land. Gal Oya river in the Eastern province was dammed and a tank was created with 40,000 thousands acres of irrigated land. In 1956 the settlement had over 50 new villages where over 5,000 ethnic Sri Lankan Tamil, Muslim, Indigenous Veddha and Sinhalese were settled. The Sinhalese were approximately 50% of the settlers. Sinhalese and others were spatially separated from each other as Sinhalese were settled at the more productive headwaters of the Gal Oya tank and the Tamils and Muslims at the down rivers closer to their former native villages. Settlement of large number of Sinhalese peasants in what Tamil nationalists considered their traditional Tamil homeland, was a source of tension within the settlement area. [8]

The massacres

As information about disturbances in the capital Colombo reached the outlying area, the riots began on the evening of June 11, 1956 when agitated mobs began roaming the streets of Gal Oya valley looking for Tamils. Property owned by Tamils including that of Indian Tamils were looted and burned down. In the following days number of rumors began to spread. The chief amongst them was that a Sinhalese girl was raped and made to walk naked in the street in nearby Tamil dominated Batticalao town by a Tamil mob. Although this proved to be false later, the rumor inflamed the passions of the mob and led to further massacres and property destruction.[9]

There were further rumors that an army of 6,000 Tamils armed with guns were in the process of approaching the Sinhalese settlements in the Gal Oya valley. This led to local groups of Sinhalese men to commandeer government vehicles to travel to outlying Tamil villages. [10] According journalist W. Howard Higgins and Manor well over hundred Tamils were massacred by the mob. [11] At first the local police did not make any attempt at controlling the mob as they said that they were outnumbered by the rioters. It is only the arrival of the Army reinforcements and stern action by them to contriol the riots, that the killings and destruction was brought under control.[12]

References

  • Vittachi, Tarzie (1958). Emergency ’58: The Story of the Ceylon Race Riots. Andre Deutsch. OCLC 2054641.
  • Tambiah, Stanley (1997). Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 0-5202-0642-8.
  • Horowitz, Donald (2001). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press. ISBN 0-5202-2447-7.
  • Chattopadhyaya, Haraprasad (1994). Ethnic Unrest in Modern Sri Lanka: An Account of Tamil-Sinhalese Race Relations. South Asia Books. ISBN 8-1858-8052-2.
  • DeVotta, Neil (2004). Blowback: Linguistic Nationalism, Institutional Decay, and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4924-8.




1984 Mannar massacre

4 09 2009

Location Mannar, Sri Lanka Date December 4 1984 (+6 GMT) Attack type Shooting Weapon(s) Guns Death(s) 107 – 150 Injured Unknown Perpetrator(s) Sri Lankan Army

The 1984 Mannar massacre was the killing of between 107 and 150 minority Sri Lankan Tamils civilians by Sri Lankan Army soldiers in the town of Mannar, north-western Sri Lanka, on December 4, 1984.[1] The attack was triggered when three Army jeeps hit a land mine, killing one soldier. In retaliation, landmarks such as the Central hospital, the post office, a Roman Catholic convent as well as villagers working in rice paddy fields and bus passengers were attacked. Villages around Mannar town such as Murunkan and Parappankadal were also attacked. Immediately after the incident, the then Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayawardene appointed a Presidential commission of inquiry. A local Roman Catholic priest, Mary Bastian who was a member Presidential commission was later killed on January 1985. A Methodist minister George Jeyarajasingham, who was a witness to the incident, was also killed in December 1984.[2][3]

Background information

During the British colonial period, when Sri Lanka was known as Ceylon, most (roughly 60%) civil service jobs were held by the minority Sri Lankan Tamils who constituted approximately 15% of the population. This was a result of the Western education provided by American missionaries and others in the Tamil dominated Jaffna peninsula. In order to win support amongst the majority Sinhalese people populist politicians initiated measures aimed at correcting the over representation of Tamils in the civil service. These measures, as well as riots and pogroms that targeted the Sri Lankan Tamils, led to the formation of a number of rebel groups advocating independence for Sri Lankan Tamils. Following the 1983 Black July pogrom full scale civil war erupted between the government and the rebel groups.[4]

The incident

On December 4, 1984 three Sri Lankan Army jeeps hit a land mine, killing one soldier and wounding eleven others. In retaliation, about thirty (30) soldiers went on a rampage, attacking public buildings and civilians in and around Mannar.

The soldiers attacked the central hospital; stopped vehicles and shot and killed the occupants; shot 15 employees of the post office by lining them up and shooting them, killing eight; opened fire on peasants in fields; and attacked a convent, stripping the nuns of watches, gold crucifixes and chains. Another group of soldiers stopped a bus and shot all the male passengers. A bus travelling in the opposite direction was also stopped and twenty of its passengers were shot dead. Off the main road, an army jeep drove into the village of Parappankadal. The soldiers fired indiscriminately, killing 12 of people including a mother nursing her infant child. The child survived but three of its toes were blown away by the bullet that killed its mother. Murunkan was another village affected the incident.

By the end, up to 150 people had been killed; another 20 were missing, mostly young male Tamils taken to army camps. It took three days to transport all the bodies.[5][6]

Investigations

The then Sri Lankan President J.R. Jayawardene instituted a Presidential commission to investigate the incident. Although many locals were reluctant to participate in the investigation, Mary Bastian, a Roman Catholic priest, participated in the investigation.

Rev Jeyarajasingham, a Methodist priest, was another the focal point of Human Rights activism on behalf of the local people [7][8] He was also the local contact for the Sri Lankan government appointed presidential committee to investigate Human Rights violations in the Mannar district. [7] [8] Rev. Jeyarajasingham was shot dead on December 13, 1984 when he was travelling in his vehicle. Later his body was burnt along with his vehicle. Rev Fr Mary Bastian collected the remains of victims including Rev Jeyarajasingham and handed them to the Jeevothayam Methodist Centre. [8][7][9][8][10][11][12][13][14][15] Rev Fr Mary Bastian was himself killed on January 6,1985 allegedly by the military.[9][16][17][18][7]

References

  1. ^ Brown (edit), Cynthia (1995). Playing the “Communal Card”: Communal Violence and Human Rights. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-5643-2152-5. p. 91
  2. ^ Hoole, Ranjan (2001). Sri Lanka: The Arrogance of Power : Myths, Decadence & Murder. University Teachers for Human Rights. ISBN 9-5594-4704-1. p. 327
  3. ^ Marks, Thomas (1996). Maoist Insurgency Since Vietnam. Routledge. ISBN 9-7146-4606-71. p. 231
  4. ^ Tamil Alienation” (html). Russell R. Ross. http://countrystudies.us/sri-lanka/71.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  5. ^ Tamils hit by scorched-earth blitz, Sunday Times, London, 27 January 1985” (html). Anne Weaver. http://pact.lk/2008/03/23/4-december-1984/. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  6. ^ Michael Hamlyn reporting in the London Times, 18 February 1985” (html). Michael Hamlyn. http://pact.lk/2008/03/23/4-december-1984/. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  7. ^ a b c d Speaking truth to power:the human rights situation in Sri Lanka“. Paxchristi. http://storage.paxchristi.net/AP29E97.pdf#search=%22Fr.%20Mary%20Bastian%20%22. Retrieved 2006-03-26.
  8. ^ a b c d Chapter 32: Limbo between war and peace“. Asiantimes. http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/DC23Df05.html. Retrieved 2006-03-26.
  9. ^ a b Note to the incident at St. Patrick‚Äôs:“. UTHR. http://www.uthr.org/Reports/Report1/Chapter1.htm#_Toc517801526. Retrieved 2006-03-26.
  10. ^ Frerks, George; Bart Klem (2004). Dealing with diversity: Sri Lankan Discourses on Peace and Conflict. Netherlands Institute of International Relations. ISBN 9-0503-1091-5. p.118
  11. ^ Humphrey, Hawksley (February 22, 1986). “Massacre in Akkaraipattu“. The Guardian. http://www.tamilnation.org/indictment/indict041.htm.
  12. ^ Lawrence, Patricia (2001). The Ocean of Stories ; Children’s Imagination, Creativity, and Reconciliation in Eastern Sri Lanka. International Centre for Ethnic Studies. ISBN 9-5558-0076-6. p.40
  13. ^ McDermott (edit), Rachel Fell (2008). Encountering Kali: In the Margins, at the Center, in the West. University of California Press. ISBN 0-5202-3240-2. p.121
  14. ^ Hoole, Ranjan (2001). Sri Lanka: The Arrogance of Power : Myths, Decadence & Murder. University Teachers for Human Rights. ISBN 9-5594-4704-1. p. 327
  15. ^ Caron, Cynthia (March 15-21, 2003). “Floundering Peace Process: Need to Widen Participation“. Economic and Political Weekly (Economic and Political weekly) 38 (11): 1029-1031. http://www.jstor.org/pss/4413336. Retrieved 2009-1-26.
  16. ^ Mannar human rights activist Fr Mary Bastian remembered“. Tamilnet. http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=10878. Retrieved 2006-03-26.
  17. ^ Brown(edit), Cynthia (1995). Playing the “Communal Card”: Communal Violence and Human Rights. Human rights Watch. ISBN 1-5643-2152-5. p.91
  18. ^ Marks, Thomas (1996). Maoist Insurgency Since Vietnam. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4606-7. p.197